Symptoms and treatment of chickenpox in children
Today we will talk about what chickenpox is and will dwell in more detail on chickenpox in children, its symptoms and treatment in childhood. Chickenpox can give serious symptomatic irritations and pass in a severe form. Therefore, it is necessary to find out what to do if you notice the symptoms of chicken rashes and how to treat this disease.
WHAT CAUSES CHICKEN POX IN A CHILD
Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease. Its causative agent is the herpes virus of the third type, which is called Varicella. zoster ( Varicella zoster ). This virus clearly stands out among other herpetic strains. Based on the name, it is already clear that a feature of the causative agent of chickenpox is volatility in the wind and its ability to survive in the air for a long time.
The varicella-zoster virus is one of the most enduring, and it is actively looking for a host. The radius of propagation through the air from the object in which it is located reaches one hundred meters. Therefore, children can be infected not only from direct contact with the virus carrier, but also from a person from a neighboring house.
In children who have not yet had chickenpox, the risk of primary infection is very high, since the body does not have specific antibodies to fight this strain of herpes. After the virus enters the child’s body, the immune system will begin to actively fight the pathogen. After that, the children remain carriers of Varicella zoster for life. In adulthood, a serious failure of immunity can cause a recurrence of the disease in the form of shingles.
SYMPTOMS OF CHICKENPOX IN CHILDREN
Symptoms of chickenpox in children are divided into two types. Firstly, it is the symptomatology, which is expressed by the general well-being of the child. Secondly, it is a well-known rash similar to insect bites.
Signs of the general condition of the body
Let us consider in more detail how chickenpox manifests itself and the symptoms associated with general well-being:
chickenpox in the initial stage is similar to acute respiratory infections;
starts with fever;
the temperature rises sharply;
accompanied by headache;
the child feels a general malaise.
With different forms of chickenpox, which are described in more detail below, these symptoms can be of different intensity, some of them are completely absent. But with the classic course of chickenpox in children, such symptoms are observed. Usually there is no rash yet, and the child may already have a latent form of the disease, in which he becomes a virus carrier.
The external manifestation of chickenpox in the form of a rash
After passing the incubation period of chickenpox, the body begins to become covered with rashes. Let us consider in more detail how chickenpox in children manifests itself in the form of a rash:
the rash begins with small single red spots;
in the center of the spot there is a small bubble with liquid;
initially rashes are formed on the head;
from the head the rash descends to the face, then to the stomach;
As a result, rashes begin to cover the entire body.
The peculiarity of chickenpox is expressed in the fact that the rash covers the child in waves. When active rashes begin, they appear for two or three weeks with intervals of new waves of rash in two days. In parallel with undulating rashes, the rise and fall of body temperature behaves in a similar way.
The child has severe itching, so it is necessary to start treatment as soon as possible. Each varicella papule contains a high concentration of the virus, and when a child scratches the varicella rash, the virus begins to actively spread through the air.
Distinctive features of the symptoms of chickenpox
Differences from allergies will become apparent when the rash begins to cover different parts of the body in large volumes. An allergic reaction usually produces symptoms in the form of rashes on certain regional elements.
A distinctive feature of chickenpox is the absence of a rash on the palms and feet. Many doctors diagnose “chickenpox”, neglecting this rule, although the symptoms of a rash on the palms or feet are more likely to indicate an enterovirus disease.
Chickenpox in children sometimes causes symptoms in the form of a rash on the mucous membrane of the eye. In this case, the disease is very painful and painful.
Photos 5 and 6 show close-up symptoms of the chicken pox rash. Chickenpox rashes appear periodically in the same places where it has already begun to heal. Therefore, on the skin in one place there is a contrast of formations. Spots that have not yet turned into large papules along with vesicles that already have a high concentration of viral fluid and healing ulcers are located on the same area of the skin.
FORMS OF CHICKENPOX IN A CHILD
There are four forms of chickenpox in children that have different symptoms. Let us consider in more detail how chickenpox occurs in children with various forms of the disease.
Easy form. This is one of the three typical forms of chickenpox in children. With a mild form, there is no increase in temperature. There is itching in the area of the rash, but there are not many varicella papules, and sometimes they have isolated cases.
Medium form. With an average typical chickenpox, body temperature rises to a maximum of 38 degrees. This is the classic form of chickenpox, it gives all the symptoms of the general condition and external manifestations, which are described above in the section “Symptoms of chickenpox in children.”
Heavy form. It rarely occurs in children and mostly affects adults. Body temperature can rise up to 40 degrees. The eruptions coalesce into large papules and are very intensely distributed over large areas.
atypical form. When it comes to the atypical form of chickenpox, it must be divided into two types with different symptoms and course. The first type is aggravated , in which all the symptoms of chickenpox are very pronounced. The second type is rudimentary, there are no symptoms at all with this atypical form of chickenpox.
RULES FOR TREATMENT OF CHICKENPOX IN CHILDREN
Treatment of chickenpox in children does not require special means, since with chickenpox all treatment is aimed at combating the symptoms that are caused by the disease. There are no specific antiviral agents to combat the causative agent of chickenpox or antibiotics.
It all depends on the form of the disease, which gives symptoms of varying intensity. With the classic course of chickenpox in children, treatment requires the following actions:
Body temperature control – if the temperature is above 38 degrees, it is necessary to use antipyretic drugs.
Fighting rashes – chicken papules are cauterized in order to dry them and track new bubble formations. You can use green paint, or other means with a similar effect.
Antihistamine ointments – Sometimes doctors prescribe these drugs to relieve itching. It is necessary to smear only chicken papules to avoid overdose.
Bed rest – is required during a fever and signs of intoxication of the body, when the child’s health becomes more stable, you can save him from bed rest.
It is necessary to bathe the child – many people think that it is impossible to wet the chickenpox, this is not true. It is necessary to bathe children with chickenpox, this will reduce the intensity of itching.
Most often, applying simple actions in the treatment of chickenpox in children, the disease will pass in ten days. It is impossible to go outside during treatment. Walking, you can start only a week after the appearance of the last wind bubble.
If the child has severe itching, you can not buy anti-allergic drugs on your own, they should be prescribed only by the attending physician. At high temperatures, in no case should Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic acid) be used as an antipyretic. Aspirin with chickenpox can lead to complications.
Prevention of chickenpox in children primarily involves vaccination. Of the vaccines, Okavax and Varilrix can be distinguished . Vaccination is optional and is at the discretion of the parents. When vaccinated, the child will either be protected from chickenpox for ten years, or, if infected, will suffer a mild form. But the vaccine can cause complications in young children, so you should carefully consider your decision and consult a specialist.
Summing up, we recall that such a versatile disease as chickenpox requires special attention. It can be confused with acute respiratory infections or allergies, so at the first sign of cold symptoms, you should think about the fact that it might be chickenpox, and carefully monitor the appearance of papules. And we should not forget that chickenpox should be treated carefully, due to the presence of incompatible drugs and drugs that can cause side effects.