Symptoms and treatment of cytomegalovirus infection in women

Depending on the general state of immunity, cytomegalovirus in women can cause appropriate modifications – an asymptomatic referral, a mild mononucleosis -like syndrome, or severe depressing systemic infectious diseases with damage to internal organs, such as lungs, kidneys, liver. It is known that cytomegalovirus (CMV) belongs to the herpesvirus family, namely, it contains herpes DNA. It can affect almost any human organ. Today we will consider how cytomegalovirus infection manifests itself in the female body, what complications it can cause, and how CMVI is treated. But first we need to understand the causes and transmission of cytomegalovirus.


CMVI ( cytomegalovirus infection) has a fairly low contagiousness (contagiousness), as a result, the presence of several favorable factors is necessary for infection.

Consider the possible ways of transmission of cytomegalovirus:

Household – the general use of household items and personal hygiene. The virus penetrates through the skin and mucous membranes.

Contact – close contact in closed groups from a carrier of cytomegalovirus or already sick with CMVI through various body fluids.

Sexual – transmitted through sperm and mucus from the cervical canal through the skin and mucous membranes of the oral cavity or genital organs. Therefore, so that the cytomegalovirus does not enter the female body during sexual contact, it should be protected.

Airborne – transmitted through saliva, sputum, tears through the skin and mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract or oral cavity.

Iatrogenic – transmitted by blood transfusion from a carrier of the virus or a patient with cytomegalovirus to a healthy person.

Transplantation – transmitted by transplantation of an infected organ or tissue of a virus-carrying donor.

Oral – transmitted through breast milk, infected products, various infected objects or hands through the oral mucosa.

A sick person or a virus carrier of a cytomegalovirus infection of a latent or acute form of cytomegalovirus is the only reservoir of the disease for a woman. Getting into the female body for the first time, the virus settles and parasitizes intracellularly , causing a sharp increase in the size of the cells of those organs in which it multiplies.


With cytomegalovirus infection, the symptoms in women directly depend on the form of the disease. In almost 93% of cases, women have a latent form of CMVI without clear signs. It is worth noting that the symptoms begin to appear when the virus is activated.

Somatic signs of CMVI are almost impossible to visually distinguish from ordinary infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. If a woman has contracted CMVI for the first time, then, as a rule, the disease is completely asymptomatic. Primary infection in women is expressed by a mononucleosis -like syndrome. From 20 to 60 days – the incubation period of cytomegalovirus lasts. From 2 to 6 weeks – the duration of the disease.

With repeated activation of the virus, symptoms of a pronounced nature are possible. In this case, the woman:

fever begins, while the high temperature is very difficult to bring down;

there is general weakness, malaise, a feeling of constant fatigue;

enlarged lymph nodes;

sore muscles of the body;

there is a severe pain in the throat;

sometimes there is a skin rash similar to chickenpox;

loss of appetite and weight loss.

However, based only on preliminary symptoms, an accurate diagnosis cannot be made. These signs are similar to the symptoms of other diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to undergo a complete differential examination in the clinic, after which the attending physician will prescribe a comprehensive medical treatment.


Cytomegalovirus infection causes especially severe serious complications in patients with low immunity. Women at risk may include:

with oncological diseases;

HIV – infected;

after organ transplant;

AIDS patients.

CMVI can also cause serious complications in women with good immunity. Consider some of the possible complications, where we will see how dangerous CMV is for women:

pulmonary diseases – pneumonia, exudative or purulent pleurisy;

liver disease – hepatitis, increased liver enzymes;

neurological complications – inflammation of the brain (encephalitis);

intestinal diseases – inflammation of the intestines, diarrhea, blood and abdominal pain;

consequences during pregnancy – when the fetus is infected, cytomegalovirus can be a possible basis for serious disruptions in the nervous system.

Only after the examination, all treatment is simply organized at home. In any case, self-medication is not recommended.


Modern medicine has not yet developed methods for the complete destruction of the virus. In this connection, the treatment of cytomegalovirus and prevention sets the task of significantly reducing the effect of the pathogen on the female body.

To achieve the successful achievement of the goal, drugs such as:

Anticytomegalovirus . This group contains two drugs – Ganciclovir and Foscarnet . Do not allow the virus to multiply in the cell. They differ from acyclovir in significantly higher toxicity.

Antiviral with immunomodulatory effects. Panavir – in the process of treatment with the drug, activation of the production of interferon is observed, an increase in nonspecific immunity is noted.

Symptomatic. Preparations in the form of drops for the nose and eyes, traditional medicine. Drugs from the groups of painkillers, vasoconstrictors and anti-inflammatory drugs.

Immunoglobulins. Cytotect is an immunological preparation that is available in the form of a solution for intravenous administration. It is used for the prevention of CMVI in immunosuppressed women. It is used to prevent the manifestation of the disease after infection with CMV. Combine and destroy viral particles.

Interferons. Cycloferon – is available in the form of tablets, solution, 5% liniment. Antiviral and immunomodulatory inducer of interferon synthesis. This drug is contraindicated for pregnant and breastfeeding women.

It should be noted that drug therapy for cytomegalovirus is not always necessary. Treatment with drugs is used in the generalized form of CMVI, in severe conditions accompanied by a deficiency of immunity, as well as in pregnant women.

Summing up, it is worth noting that some medical experts believe that if the cytomegalovirus is inactive, treatment of the infection is inappropriate. Given these statements, it follows that the best option for treating the chronic form of cytomegalovirus is the active support of immunity at a high level. And for the treatment of cytomegalovirus in pregnant women, you should constantly monitor your condition and take medications under the supervision of your doctor.

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