Symptoms And Treatment Of Herpes Virus Type 6 In Children
Today, one of the most common viruses is herpes type 6 in children. This virus has two types – A and B. It is the second type of herpes of type 6 that causes most of the problems in children, and the first one most often affects the adult body. Herpes type 6 is poorly understood, but medicine has learned some facts that contribute to the successful treatment of diseases caused by this herpes virus. Below we will tell you about the symptoms and treatment of herpes simplex type 6 in a child, and you will also find out what is the most common disease it causes in a child’s body.
The human herpes virus is a viral infectious skin disease. The disease is characterized by the manifestation of rashes on the skin of the face or in different parts of the body. And also the symptoms of herpes can appear on the mucous membranes in different areas of the human body.
To date, among herpes viruses, the herpes virus type 6 in children is of great interest in scientific medicine. This is due to the widespread prevalence, frequency, and severity of the disease and complications among the child population, especially under the age of three. Moreover, it is impossible to completely remove the virus from the body. As you know, the herpes virus of the sixth type lives in a person forever.
WAYS OF INFECTION
Herpes of the sixth type 6B, with primary infection, causes the formation of a widespread sudden exanthema (baby roseola). In addition, reactivation, that is, the restoration of cell viability, HHV-6B resulting in recipients (a person who receives blood transfusions, as well as organ or tissue transplants from another person) during transplantation gives such clinical manifestations as viral encephalitis, pronounced bone marrow suppression, progression of immunodeficiency.
Infection transmission mechanisms:
the contact route of transmission of the virus occurs through salivation;
airborne, in which the herpes virus is localized on the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract, from where it is released into the air when sneezing or coughing;
medical intervention – this can be a transplant or blood transfusion;
perinatal – in utero from mother to fetus.
Most often, type 6 herpes is seriously ill in children aged from six months to a year. This is due to a decrease in the value of maternal antibodies in children’s blood after six months. As soon as the virus enters the child’s body, it immediately breaks into the lymphatic system. There he lives, being in a sleeping mode, not expressing himself in any way. Under favorable and convenient conditions for him, it is accepted to vigorously multiply and multiply. At the same time, it is successfully released into the blood of the child and spread throughout the body.
The external manifestation of primary infection with Human betaherpesvirus 6B is baby roseola. A characteristic difference is a high temperature followed by rashes. It was found that herpes type 6 is especially active at the time of the early stage of pink lichen, this clearly indicates an etiological (causal) role in this disease. But this happens much less frequently than the activity of Human betaherpesvirus 7 (herpes type 7).
The first signs of the presence of herpes type 6 in children may arise after factors that reduce the child’s immunity. It can be:
postponed acute respiratory diseases;
postponed acute respiratory viral infections;
stressful state of the child after stopping breastfeeding.
As a result of a weakened immune system, symptoms in children can manifest themselves for no reason. Typically, this occurs one to two weeks after infection, that is, after the incubation period.
Human betaherpesvirus 6B matures and forms gradually, and is inevitably accompanied by signs of the disease such as:
first, the body temperature rises to subfebrile (subfebrile);
then a persistent fever begins, lasting from three days to a week;
perhaps a slight reddening of the tonsils in the throat;
probably an increase in cervical lymph nodes.
Additionally, the spleen may enlarge. In some cases, a papular rash occurs in the oral cavity. A nose may become blocked, a cough may begin, impaired consciousness (encephalopathy) may appear, nausea and diarrhea may occur.
STEP-BY-STEP PROCESS OF THE DISEASE
During a fever, febrile seizures often begin, which are difficult to treat with medication and have a long duration.
Further, the baby’s body temperature suddenly returns to normal. Then, rashes begin to appear on the child’s body. The rash is quite profuse, spotty and in places even papular, causing great discomfort.
The rashes begin to appear first on the back, then move to the neck, then to the tummy and behind the baby’s ears. During this period, the child’s well-being and activity remains satisfactory. The rash remains on the body for about 2 to 5 days, after which it disappears without a trace.
There are cases when the disease in children is completely asymptomatic. This phenomenon occurs mainly in six-month-old children, this is due to the fact that they have maternal antibodies in their bodies.
The asymptomatic course of type 6 herpes in children makes the diagnosis very difficult. But it significantly reduces the possibility of complications.
As soon as the child shows the above symptoms, it is necessary to immediately contact the local pediatrician. After a visual examination, the doctor will write out a referral for testing. Currently, the most popular is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which shows antibodies in the blood.
If antibodies to HHV-6B were transmitted to the baby from the mother, then the amount of class G immunoglobulins in the baby’s blood is moderate, not exceeding the norm. These antibodies can be detected as early as seven days after birth.
To confirm the presence of herpes type 6 in children in the body, it is necessary to investigate the above two analyzes. The study of the second analysis should indicate an increase in igG by 4 times or more. At primary infection, igM may not be present in the blood, but igG antibodies will be mandatory.
For the diagnosis of herpes type 6, a cultural scientific method is also used, which allows you to detect the virus in biological fluid of a different nature, for example, in saliva.
In addition, diagnostics is carried out using PCR analysis. This study shows how the disease behaves at the moment, and how it will behave in the future.
After the diagnosis is made, a small patient is selected for personal treatment. The selection of treatment depends on many key factors, the action of which is aimed at the prompt elimination of somatic signs, as well as the prevention and prevention of complications.
It is necessary to treat diseases caused by herpes type 6 in a child in a comprehensive manner. The most essential goals of therapy are suppression of the virus, elimination of symptoms, and prevention of complications. As a rule, sick babies are prescribed drugs such as:
Foscarnet – able to inhibit the activity of the virus,
Lobukavir – necessary to destroy the virus,
Adefovir – the drug belongs to category C,
Ganciclavir – prescribed for weak immunity,
Cidofovir – suppresses the synthesis of viral DNA,
Isoprinosine is an immunostimulating drug.
Symptomatic – with fever, antipyretic:
Ibuprofen – can be used after 6 years,
Paracetamol – analgesic, relieves pain,
Panadol – suspension, used from 3 months to 12 years,
Nurofen – suspension , used from 3 months to 12 years,
Cefekon – suppositories, analgesic.
Symptomatic – with dehydration:
drinks (compote, herbal tea, fruit drink, uzvar).
Immunomodulators – drugs with interferon:
Groprinosin – tablets with antiviral activity,
Immunal – used for uncomplicated herpes,
Proteflazid – As a rule, the drug is well tolerated.
Vitamin complexes: A, E, C.
It is important to know that Acyclovir, which is very effective in treating herpes simplex, is not effective in treating type 6 herpes viruses.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TREATMENT
With an exacerbation of HHV-6B, it is necessary to adhere to bed rest, carefully avoid any stress, give the child more drink, and regularly give the child a multivitamin complex after the recommendation of the attending physician.
When difficulties arise in the drug treatment of herpes of the 6th type, complications of a different nature are formed in a child. In this case, the attending physician gives referrals for the consultation of such specialists as:
neurologist – if convulsions are present;
pulmonologist – if pneumonia is present;
cardiologist – if myocarditis is present;
gastroenterologist – when hepatitis occurs.
It is imperative to consult an immunologist for advice.
Summing up, it is worth recalling that the most common disease that occurs with type 6 herpes in children is baby roseola. If treatment is started on time, the virus will be suppressed very quickly. Very often, roseola goes away on its own, and has only symptoms that must be dealt with. But all the same, at the first signs indicating any illness caused by the sixth herpesvirus, you should consult a doctor.